To talk about training, we must refer to the dramatic changes in the labor landscape, which has been reshaped since the 1990s by globalization, technology and now the pandemic. Today, companies need a global strategy to find and retain a highly skilled and profitable workforce.

To sketch some of the challenges posed by the global landscape, it may happen that one day you discover that Krakow is an excellent supplier of skilled IT labor only to have competitors shortly afterward cause wage inflation to deplete that market which will have a resurgence in Bratislava and Central Africa is already being thought of as the next labor market. On the other hand, artificial intelligence and robotics raise fears about the replacement of human labor by automated systems similar to those of the Industrial Revolution with the steam engine.

It is a world in permanent transformation that is difficult to predict, creating challenges that few companies will be able to solve. We can assume that we will require general skills useful in any context and time, such as logical thinking, problem solving or working in multifunctional teams. But it is difficult to anticipate the specific skills we will need to equip our employees with beyond three years.


Training has to be related to the needs of the organization, technological changes, customer service, aspects to be improved and updated in order not to run the risk of being an expense rather than an investment. Probably some of the needs can be solved through training and others cannot, so it is important to make this analysis. In addition, organizational systems must be flexible enough to introduce the changes generated by training and there must be a psychologically safe environment in which employees feel free to propose suggestions and innovations resulting from training.


All companies have the need to optimize their performance. In this context, training needs refer to the competencies required to satisfactorily perform the tasks and responsibilities set out in the definition of the positions versus the shortcomings and limitations of the people occupying those positions.

Different problems also arise, including accidents that we detect through observation, meetings with management, asking and listening, or changes in the way of doing things posed by technology, as well as the introduction of new systems/equipment that can be solved through training.


The findings and conclusions of the needs must be validated with the management of the training candidates, since each management is the one who must know the current performance and its possible causes, as well as the desired performance of the collaborators under their responsibility.

In these meetings with managers, they will be encouraged to participate in the definition of training needs in order to design the training plan, with questions about what the employee does and how he/she does it. The knowledge or handling of tools/equipment that should be included in the training content. The support that will be given as a complement to the training. The follow-up and evaluation criteria that will be used to determine whether or not the employee has improved.

The person in charge of training and, in general terms, human resources actions are to facilitate the processes, those who have the responsibility and should be fully involved with the aspects of performance and results, as well as training and evaluation of its impact, are the heads/management.


With the above information, the training program is designed by a specialist in the methodological design of programs, who will prepare a technically designed program.  As for the content of the program, it should be developed by a specialist in the subject, for example, customer service.

Definition of training objectives

They indicate the goal to be reached and are formulated in relation to the needs detected. There are usually two types of objectives: 

  • General objective: This refers to the change in behavior that the training will produce. What the person will be capable of at the end of the program compared to when he/she started it.
  • Specific objectives: These are the lower level objectives, by topic, that will be achieved as the program progresses and that can be evaluated.
  • Defining the training budget

Establish the costs of the items related to the training program. 

  • Defining the thematic content

The content is closely related to the objectives and refers to the topics that make up the training program. 

  • Definition of instructors, infrastructure, duration and support materials.
  • Definition of the evaluation

The evaluation is usually determined on the basis of four criteria:  

  • The participant’s reaction after the training.
  • Learning, how much their knowledge, skills and abilities have increased.
  • Behavior or changes in their attitude towards work.
  • Cost-benefit, impact on directly related indicators: improvement in productivity, reduction of accidents.